Based on the previous findings, the aging is affected by three main factors, such as for instance biological, social and environmental

Based on the previous findings, the aging is affected by three main factors, such as for instance biological, social and environmental

This may be done by higher level of governmental control over companies, in addition to by implementing policies which could terminate corruption. Education should become probably one of the most crucial spheres of developing within the analyzed countries. This will be achieved to improve literacy on the list of Latin American population. Appropriate amount of education could help to build up different industries and create more work places. This, in turn, may decrease currently higher level of unemployment and poverty. As revealed within the article, the organized gang criminals exist due to high unemployment rate on the list of youth. It ought to be emphasized that education should not only be received by young ones in schools and universities. There is also a strong have to establish evening schools for adults to become proficient in various spheres and get literacy. These measures will boost infrastructure and create numerous possibilities for the populace to become prosperous and successful.

The discussed countries should also reduce drug trafficking, as well as handle individuals that are engaged in these illegal activities. Drug trafficking problem can just only be combated if the member states join fingers in the combat the vice. With this to be performed, it really is significant for Latin American countries never to depend on drug trafficking being a main supply of economic profits for the federal government. They ought to reject this supply of revenues and develop other industries that could boost the economic amount of the society. With regards to this issue, it’s also crucial to manage drug abusers and implement special rehabilitation courses for them. Drug dealers, on the other hand, is punished to be able to avoid the population from massive substance abuse.

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Another exemplory case of fallacy may be the utilization of irrelevant facts or red herring. Applying this approach, the writer can distract a reader’s attention and introduce a new group of facts which do not relate to the main topic of discussion. This fallacy is normally used to make the audience be less concentrated on the major debate. The eye may be distracted from someone’s crime or guilt, because it is presented within the following example: “Wife: I cannot think that you forgot Valentine’s Day once again. Husband: Did I let you know just how stunning you look in that dress?” (Van Vleet 23). This example may be the simplest one because it is targeted at distracting woman’s attention by making her compliments.thesis for a profile essay Red herring approach is often utilized in the courts by attorneys to distract the jury from real facts while making them have confidence in other facts. For example, the argumentation might be exhibited within the following example: “Professor Conway complains of inadequate parking on our campus. But are you aware that last year Conway carried on a torrid romance having a member of the English department?” (Walton 139). This way, you’ll be able to lead the jury therefore the court within the wrong direction.


The article under analysis is called “Migrants Face Fortress Europe’s Deadly Moat”, where the author reports about the death of 1200 people within the Mediterranean. The victims included predominantly migrants from Mali, Syria, Eritrea, and Somalia, who put down from the united states in aspire to reach European shores. The writer also focuses on the political facets of the tragedy, pointing out the views and assumptions produced by the European politicians. Within the article, the eye was paid to your criticism associated with policies in Europe regarding migration procedures. Particularly, the majority of political agents and governmental authorities are perhaps not ready to encourage the migration process. In response, they’ve developed a three-fold strategy that strives to militarize border controls, outsource controls, and criminalizing migration as a whole.

Further within the article, the eye was paid to your analysis of the EU security strategies therefore the issue of escalation in migration rate. Apparently, the author attempted to create a connection between your tragedy on ship therefore the European government’s reluctance to produce permission on migration. In fact, the authorities ensure that these safety measures happen taken purely for protection associated with nation’s integrity and for reducing the rates of illegal immigration. Also, the border controls initiatives have been taken to the deepest consideration to define the problem of African Migration. The main point is that France and Britain are worried with migration from Libya and, being a result, their forces happen fond of air attacks. Similar expansion activities are related to Morocco. Within the light associated with tragedy that occurred within the see, the major method of managing safety problems and border control happen reconsidered. Particularly, Malik pays focus on European policy’s failed strategy that promised to destroy smugglers’ boats. Apparently, this is actually the most important and argumentative area of the article revealing the author’s assumption regarding the character and reasons associated with catastrophe. Mentioning multiple interventions associated with European Union, combined with the airstrikes and marine military equipment, explains the bond between numerous disasters within the sea therefore the strategic framework opted for by the European government.

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In the end associated with article, the writer concludes that Europe has established serious barriers, combined with the moral edges, which complicate the communication and commercial relations. More to the point, the barricades failed to allow other countries and European countries in particular to locate a consensus about the genuine values and human rights. The Mediterranean region will continue to experience individual death unless some changes are introduced to your European policies regarding migration.

Response and Application

The article that is chosen for analysis is known as and starts utilizing the bright exemplory case of argumentum advertisement misericordiam which is also called the attract pity. The author starts utilizing the enumeration of countries from which the people migrated and who experienced the ship incident. Also, irrelevant facts happen utilized in the written text to distract the readers from the fact and boost the position associated with catastrophe. The emphasis was put on the amount of poverty within the countries from which the victims originated: “Fleeing war and poverty, most had paid large sums to traffickers” (Malik). Additionally persuasive facts called by authorities, such as for instance European politicians: “Who would be to blame? European politicians point the hand at traffickers” (Malik). There are lots of other fallacies which emphasize the topic and introduce nearly all kinds of argumentation to prove the blame. The analysis associated with article therefore the selection of fallacies are appropriate because of the topic associated with research.

The employment of irrelevant facts refers to the author’s description of European border control techniques, which are somehow associated with the tragedy within the Mediterranean. Particularly, the author writes, “When the European Union treats immigration being a issue of criminality, it’s not just the traffickers that are goals. In 2004, A german ship rescued 37 African refugees from a dinghy” (Malik). The second sentence does perhaps not relate to the initial one much. Nonetheless, the author places them together to distract the audience’s attention and emphasize the negative consequences associated with safety framework, making the whole argument ambiguous. Both approaches utilized in the content boost the author’s main idea about the irrelevant safety reforms introduced by the European government.

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In general, the content has interesting assumptions, statistical analysis, rhetoric approaches, and use of fallacies. The main topic of discussion disclosed within the article is essential nowadays within the lights of human being legal rights protection and equality. Therefore, the European community should reconsider the priorities and define new steps in social, political, and cultural development of the continent. Particularly, the author introduces a variety of approaches and fallacies to persuade the audience that the tragedy within the sea isn’t any sort of accident, but a consequence of the irrelevant protection policies introduced by the European authorities so that they can fortify the border control.

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Problem Statements

Conventionally, the character and supply of the political attitude was subject associated with much investigation.  Such attitude is believed to be built from sensible, unencumbered reactions to your environmental occasions. Nonetheless, more investigation emphasizes in the integral and automated quality of numerous political responses based on brain activation variations( Oxley et al, 2008). Nonetheless, no research shows why many people embrace particular political attitudes while others appear primed to consider quite different attitudes.


The question about whether the America’s red-blue separate in line with the voter’s physiology fundamentally supplies a justifiable rationale for the investigator to assess the connection.  Typically such aspect has mostly been related to imaginative reaction to the environmental occasions (Oxley et al, 2008). Even though political attitude has become a supply of study for many scholars, hardly any effort was centered on the investigating the biological effect on the political attitude.


In the research, the authors have devised a supposition that variations in physical sensitivity to danger are related with the political beliefs. The investigators aims to reveals that political attitude mostly differs with physiological attributes attached to environmental threats (Oxley et al, 2008).

Measurement of Variables

In the research, you will find number of both independent and dependent variables. Independent variables included both threatening and non-threatening images, age, gender, education and income.  Within the study, the dependent variable included an additive index of 18 problems item that were based on Standard Wilson Patterson battery (Oxley et al, 2008).

Research Design

The authors of the study used a quasi-experimental design. The study look much like experimental design but it lacks the main element ingredients such as for instance random assignment. The study design ended up being structured to find out whether political affiliation is related to the physiological characteristics through a group of interviews and experiment.


The subject associated with study ended up being recruited by the Bureau of Sociological Research at the University of Nebraska. Within the study, a random sample associated with resident ended up being selected in Lincoln, Nebraska to take part in the research (Oxley et al, 2008). an initial call as well as an introductory letter ended up being employed to pose limited number of item to your respondent utilizing the reason for receiving a number of individual with strong political conviction toward whom the intense and more focused  examination will likely to be directed. An overall total of 1,310 everyone was contacted and 608 completed the screening products (Oxley et al, 2008). The subjects which were recruited with this particular project only when they responded yes to any or all the three questions poses within the testing items. As a result, an overall total of 143 responded decided to take part in the physiological experiment within the laboratory. BOSR was able to schedule 48 participants at both sessions for the research.


The instrument used to gather the information ended up being well defined. All subject were in additional to undertaking a physiological assessment, all participant also undertook a comprehensive computer-based survey questionnaire including a demographic questions, questions on political and problems of preferences, and a group of personality and mental batteries (Oxley et al, 2008). All socio-demographic and attitude data ended up being collected utilizing self-reporter computer based study administer via Media Lab computer software (Oxley et al, 2008).  Also, the instrument ended up being plainly developed to include a coding scale that determines the degree where the respondent agreed or disagreed utilizing the products within the questionnaires.

Data Collection

The data utilized in the research ended up being collected by using questionnaires that determined their political conviction and affiliations in relations for their physiological traits. Ethical consideration ended up being put in contemplated within the study in try to avoid violation of fundamental legal rights associated with participant. The entire participant ended up being informed associated with reason for the research before recruitment. The mandatory details associated with study were open to the topic thus their performance ended up being centered on informed choices. Besides, the participant confidentiality ended up being extremely protected.

Data Analysis

The data was analyzed utilizing the SPPS v.14.0. A regression derive from the primary text ended up being taken form a linear ordinary test square regression analysis.  Though linear regression model are mostly related to social science where correlation design are typical, the credibility associated with estimates produced   by the multiple regression were critically determined by group of assumptions (Oxley et al, 2008). The analysis associated with residual from the regression models ensured that all assumptions were satisfied.

Author’s Conclusion

The author’s revealed that the degree to which folks are physiologically attentive to threat appear to shows their education to which they advocate policies that protects the present social structures from both internal and external threats (Oxley et al, 2008).

Possible danger to Internal, External and Construct Validity

In reference to the internal danger, the appropriateness of the inferences made based on the study is insufficient to warrant the authors’ conclusion (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). Even though author’s have notably strived to make use of variable that show relationship between your political convention and physiological traits, variables utilized in the research does not explicitly assess the intended parameters. The research has utilized significantly many variables that allow it to be complex to produce a substantive objective associated with study (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014).

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In regard to external credibility, though the study significantly strived to recruit a big sample size, only 48 out a lot more than 600 respondents participated in the two waves associated with student. Therefore, the sample size appears inadequate to full inform or prove the hypothesis. The confidence amount of the study is extremely lower in respect to your magnitude associated with investigation (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). The sample size utilized in the research compromise the reader’s confidence in stating whether or not the study’s results are applicable with other groups. The subjects were asked concerning the degrees of support for 28 policies or political acts and only 18 were identified. Nonetheless, the identified factors are less inclined to be held by individuals worried about the protecting the interest of participating group.

The research has used an excellent design that provides the study both content and criterion credibility. The appropriateness of the inference made based on the study and measurement is particularly supported by the study design, sample size, data collection and data analysis (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). Within the physiological assessment, an alternate method of looking at the eye blink data significantly ignores the adaptation, and gifts mean blink amplitude for all seven threatening stimuli, once again with similar group division.


In the final outcome, it really is evident that though the article shows presence of minor flaws that affect it credibility, the content has significantly achieved its objective. To large degree, it offers answered the question raised within the problem statement. The findings have plainly shown a relationship between individual political views and physiological traits. If I was to redo the research, little adjustment within the sample size is effected. I am going to boost the sample size to be able to boost the confidence amount of the study (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). The content is advantageous and is practical particularly because it has built that a relationship exist between different political perception upheld by individuals and physiological characteristics.  Besides, the analysis is in line with the outcome reported within the main text therefore suggesting that the findings therefore the inferences associated with paper are robust with regard to the estimation and measurement. The research is extremely necessary to both the society and public administrator since it changes the standard attitudes that assumed attitudes were built form sensible, imaginative reactions to environmental occasions. The research doesn’t significantly changes the individual method of practice because it robustness and confidence level continues to be lacking. Nonetheless, a far more compressive study on the field is vital to be able to establish more interconnectedness.

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Aging is really a difficult and painful process for many adults. Particularly aging brings vexation for people who fear growing older for various reasons: wear and tear, general imbalance, disengagement, continuity theory, etc. Most are not able to accept this natural process that everybody has to sooner or later undergo, and for that reason go through their retirement. Home care centers for elderly have been produced being a solution to restore the balance in psycho-emotional, biological and environmental states of the aging and boost the satisfaction of life only at that period. However, the latest research in the region of gerontology had shown that this is simply not always the scenario. Gerontology is really a study that reflects an investigation based on family caregiving, intergenerational problems, ethnicity, residential care, etc. In another of the articles related to facets of gerontology, Goldsmith (2012) discusses the genetic problems of aging and shows that the human being lifespan depends on the programmed and non-programed theories. In turn, Coles (2013) enlarges in the advances of contemporary gerontology and places a focus on the importance of developing a positive aging vision. an interesting research ended up being conducted by Kerbler (2012), who states that “the concept of ageing at home can be implemented by using information and communication technologies” (p. 166). Therefore, gerontology aims at explaining the theories of aging and finding the answers to make this process because smooth and comfortable as you are able to for the elderly. Based on the previous findings, the aging is affected by three main factors, such as for instance biological, social and environmental. The study articles by Ayalon (2011) and Ayalon et al. (2012), describe the situations that touch social and environmental factors that affect the end result of aging.

Let’s walk through the analysis of social aspects and aging theories described in the studies associated with authors. First, the articles by Ayalon (2011), and Ayalon et al. (2012) are centered on the consequence of care performed in home settings by foreign workers who look after older people inside their natural Israel. The authors argue the concern of speculating the correlation between your aspect of caregiving and loneliness. Based on the social theory of aging, growing old is really a co-dependent interactive process that in a vicious circle affects the surroundings therefore the elderly. The content by Ayalon (2011) describes the need for the elderly to possess anyone to watch over. True that based on the activity theory, engaging active social interactions with younger adults absolutely affect in the satisfaction and well-being associated with recipient. However, this method might have negative effects in the elderly in the event of disability or other reasons that stop the recipient from maintaining middle-aged lifestyle and meaningful participation in active interfacing.

Second, growing older the individuals experience mutual separation from society. Due to this fact, the house care centers are increasingly being produced to be able to oppress the ego-centric and self-absorved features that are being developed within the individuals and obtain right back on track to societal lifestyle. It’s widely acknowledged that seniors in settings which can be distant from their house tend to feel lack of attention and loneliness as a result of absence of their family users. Nonetheless, Ayalon’s (2011) article refutes this particular idea and examines the results of foreign workers in the social, mental, and biological facets of older people that tend to bring excellent results, as well as satisfaction. The scholars know what makes foreign people become human being services workers. On the list of reasons are “dramatic demographic changes” and “availability of informal care” (Ayalon, 2011, p. 376). The researchers highlight live-in home take care of elderly that engage them in close communication with at the least someone else, who helps them to be predisposed for self-reflection and stay clear of social roles, but still be mounted on social interactions.

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Third, continuity and life course theory is really a problematic aspect for perception of an aging person. The individual can be used to build up attachments while being in life as everything is forever. Nevrtheless, whenever dangerous age comes there’s a have to overcome and accept the idea of unavoidable change and decline. The researchers (2011, and 2012) explore the irreplaceable have to walk the elderly through this journey at the conclusion of its cycle. The idea of live-in home care has already reached the amount of extreme popularity and Ayalon’s article (2011) reflects upon the positive sides of such an experience. It really is fair to conjecture that the article’s hypothesis may be supported by the scholar’s idea to interact various stakeholders into the study. This means that seniors, their family and foreign workers contributed to your study.

Let’s walk through the analysis of environmental aspects and aging theories described in the studies associated with authors. Environmental gerontology studies the aspects that optimize, change and ameliorate their state associated with aging person from environmental perspective. The studies describe how do live-in home foreign social workers affect the surroundings associated with elderly that they look after, plus the amount of satisfaction using this experience. While the studies of social theories of aging have more or less clear overview as well as the cause and effect results, the behavioral environmental gerontology reaches the cradle associated with research. The researchers conclude that the environmental theories have double impact on the elderly.

First, Ayalon (2011) sticks to particular theories, arguing that foreign live-in workers affect old people in a positive way. The content supplies a clear-cut literature review that performs the function of informing possible readers or the mark audience concerning the challenges associated with research, in regards to the facets of home care. It’s evident from the literature review that a great gap exists failing woefully to provide a proper definition of satisfaction in the context of home care. The writer associated with study makes a striking conclusion that a home worker includes a positive influence on older weakened people. The study failed to show that cognitive status somehow affected the satisfaction levels. The older adults who actually spend the majority of their time making use of their foreign home care workers were prone to view the workers as family unit members. Their family users, on the other hand, were more hesitant to do this, because to some extent, by permitting someone else within their families, they might relinquish their own spot and status. (Ayalon, 2011, p. 381).

As well as the above-mentioned results, the article sheds light on a finding that family members` satisfaction is determined by the amount of impairment associated with older recipients of care. Even though study isn’t related to any theory of gerontology, it really is worth conjecturing it made a tremendous contribution to the field because Ayalon (2011) was able to show the importance of a live-in worker in caregiving methods.


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Suffice to express, as virtually any article based on a qualitative study, this particular one includes the implications of further research for gerontological policy and methods. As Ayalon’s (2011) article has evident restrictions, it may be worth mentioning that the content ended up being narrowed to a specific variable of satisfaction. Therefore, it’s not possible to generalize the outcomes associated with article to your entire population of social care workers. Certainly, another research should give attention to generalization along with other possible variables apart from satisfaction. Regarding policy issues, the authorities might provide special merit pays for social workers to encourage them working better, because it increases satisfaction levels of all of the stakeholders.

To the contrary, there might be no doubt within the assumption that Ayalon et al.’s (2012) article supplements the last one and refutes its jobs to some extent. The worthiness of the article relates to the emphasis put by authors in the influence of a live-in worker on the levels of loneliness in older people: “[…] we argue that this arrangement may, at times, predispose the older care recipient to intense feelings of loneliness” (Ayalon et al., 2012, p. 190). However, the study does not highlight the origins and consequences of loneliness. It really is worth mentioning that Ayalon et al.’s (2012) article demonstrates the expectations of numerous researchers as a result of reason that some older people tend to feel lonely because they come to understand that their family users cannot take care of them.

The content contributes to gerontology in a manner that it sheds light in the international phenomenon of home care within the light of the recipients’ loneliness. The authors synthesize literature, therefore developing a theoretical framework for their research. This kind of theoretical framework constitutes the speculations within the subjective nature of loneliness as a whole, and differentiates between emotional and social kinds of loneliness (Ayalon et al., 2012, p. 192) that is peculiar to seniors. The loneliness is explained through the prism of cognitive and physical disabilities.

Ayalon at al.’s (2012) article can be marked utilizing the appropriateness associated with theoretical history presented with a synthesis of suitable literature. The key findings that the content provides consist within the assumption that cognitive and physiological disabilities would be the main triggers for loneliness. It really is explained by the deteriorated senses that manifest by themselves in various communication issues that bring about association with social loneliness. In addition, someone may feel lonely as a result of lack of independence in walking, eating, etc. It is crucial to understand that each individual has his/her own peculiarities of aging (Cline, 2014). The matter is the fact that older adults tend to be more prone to the influence of different age stereotypes. This short article may be associated with other gerontological problems. Seemingly, the results proved that older adults attach negative attributes for their age that become salient (Weiss & Lang, 2012). A lot of researchers venture to the matter associated with influence that age exerts in the mental side. Based on Weiss, Sussenberg and Freund (2013), “Negative age stereotypes are pervasive and threaten older adults’ self-esteem” (p. 1140). The studies claim that older adults are marked utilizing the event of “prejudicial attitudes” for their age that constitute the backdrop of serious stereotypes (Stewart, Chipperfield, Perry, & Weiner, 2012). Prevention associated with negative consequences of age-related stereotypes is viewed through the prism of positive intergenerational contact due to your reason that it “can reduce vulnerability to stereotype danger among older people” (Abrams et al., 2006, p. 691). In addition to the stereotypes, “another potential mechanism accountable for loneliness in this number of older adults is that their personal care is supplied by a paid worker” (Ayalon et al., 2012, p. 195).

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Ayalon et al.’s (2012) article features a number of implications for health care experts and gerontological researchers. The problem is the fact that caregivers should enable the family unit members to become involved socially and emotionally within the arrangements produced by health care professionals. The latter should also address the issue of cultural awareness that may end in older people’s underestimated self-scoring. Health care professionals should satisfy older adults` needs in order to stop them from feeling lonely. Even though article discusses several pathways to loneliness, still you will find implications for further qualitative research, which will provide an in-depth evaluation associated with nature of loneliness, its reasons and consequences to your generation of seniors because of the vulnerability. Based on Ayalon et al. (2012), there’s a have to continue to explore factors which can be regarding loneliness in older adults as a whole along with more specific factors associated with loneliness in older adults under a live-in foreign home care worker. (p. 196)

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Other important notions that are discussed within the article are related to understanding whether self-forgiveness may be a personal injury to a person, as sometimes the idea may be used along with different rules, the existence of pseudo-forgiveness and amount of its appropriateness. The authors introduce the type of self-forgiveness which includes such components as guilt, shame, attributions, conciliatory behavior, perception of forgiveness that comes from another side or victim, therefore the offences’ severity. Therefore, the model has particular restrictions as you can find facilitators of self-forgiveness. The authors finish their article by providing additional a few ideas for further research and concluding it is useful to study deeper the problem of self-forgiveness.


First, I have to declare that after reading the abovementioned article, I changed my perception of self-forgiveness as well as its main components. Furthermore, I have comprehended why it really is so important when it comes to interpersonal transgression and that sometimes it may be a personal injury or become unreal; then, it really is called pseudo-forgiveness.

It was interesting for me to learn that self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness actually differ; they both have similar motivations, however the levels and areas they affect are not the same. Self-forgiveness creates motivation that is approximately change, but this can not be put on interpersonal forgiveness as it really is permanent and unconditional.

It had been rather informative for me to see about pseudo self-forgiveness. Thereafter, the actual forgiveness comes only after an individual understands that she or he really did something amiss.